Soilless culture includes hydroponic culture, spray culture, and substrate culture. Soilless cultivation rock wool hydroponics is a kind of substrate cultivation. The application of rock wool in the agricultural field has been developed with the continuous maturity of soilless cultivation technology and has a history of more than 100 years. Agricultural rock wool was first used by the Danes as a culture substrate in 1969, and soon became the most extensive substrate for studying and growing plants after soil.
Rock wool has good air permeability and water retention. After being refined at a high temperature of 1600℃, it is sterile and pollution-free. Therefore, it is the main soilless culture substrate in Europe. Industrial rock wool and agricultural rock wool have different functions, and there are significant differences in raw material selection, processing technology, internal structure, etc. Therefore, the use of professional agricultural rock wool is emphasized in production and cultivation, and the use of industrial rock wool is opposed.
Soilless cultivation rock wool hydroponics is a cultivation technique in which plants are planted in pre-made rock wool. The basic model is to cut the rock wool into shaped blocks and wrap them with plastic film into a pillow bag block, called a rock wool planting mat. When planting, cut holes on the surface of the rock wool planting mat, plant small seedlings with seedling blocks, and drip in the nutrient solution, the plant can take root in it to absorb water and nutrients and grow up. If many rock wool planting mats are assembled together and equipped with equipment accessories such as irrigation and drainage to form a rock wool planting border, large-scale production can be carried out.
Due to the different utilization methods of nutrient solution, Soilless cultivation rock wool hydroponics can be divided into two types: open rock wool cultivation and circulating rock wool cultivation.
The so-called “open type” means that the nutrient solution added to the rock wool planting mat is supplied to the crop for absorption and utilization, and the excess nutrient solution flowing out of the planting mat flows to the outside of the planting system through the drainage pipe without repeated recycling. The structure of the facility is relatively simple, easy to install, quick to construct, and low cost. In the production process, the risk of spreading and spreading of the bacteria in the nutrient solution during the circulation process can be reduced. Even if some plants are infected with diseases, only the infected plants Just remove the planting bag. The problem is that the amount of nutrient solution is large, and the waste nutrient solution will cause certain pollution to the environment.
Circulating soilless cultivation rock wool hydroponics means that the amount of nutrient solution added to the rock wool matrix is large, and the excess nutrient solution flows out of the rock wool and is concentrated in the storage tank through the return pipe for recycling instead of draining. A kind of soilless cultivation technology. Its advantage is the high utilization rate of nutrient solutions. However, due to the complex structure of its facilities, high capital construction costs, high daily operation and maintenance costs, and incomplete cleaning and disinfection, it is easy to cause diseases to spread faster. Therefore, it is currently used more frequently. less.
The cultivation of agricultural rock wool is the most advanced cultivation technology of modern agriculture. From cultivation facilities to environmental control, it can be monitored and regulated according to the needs of crop growth and development. Therefore, the cultivation of agricultural rock wool is beyond the reach of conventional soil cultivation superiority.